Tuesday, May 15, 2007

Revolution of Mitsubishi Evolution

Evolution I

The Evolution I was introduced in 1992 to compete in the World Rally Championship. It used the 2.0 L turbocharged DOHC engine and 4WD drivetrain from the original Galant VR-4 in a Lancer chassis, and was sold in GSR and RS models. The latter was a stripped-down club racing version that lacked power windows and seats, anti-lock brakes, a rear wiper, and had steel wheels to save approximately 155 lb (70 kg) less than the 2730 lb (1238 kg) GSR, while the former came with all of the conveniences of a typical street car. It came with Mitsubishi's 4G63 engine producing 250 PS (244 hp/182 kW) at 6000 rpm and 228 ft·lbf (309 N·m) at 3000 rpm, along with all wheel drive which would become a trademark on all Evolution models. 5,000 Evolution Is were sold between 1992 and 1993.

Evolution II

The successful Evolution I was changed in December of 1993, and was produced until 1995. It consisted mainly of handling improvements, including minor wheelbase adjustments, larger swaybars, bodywork tweaks including a larger spoiler, and beefier tires. Power output was increased to 256 PS (252 hp/188 kW) from the same engine and torque was unchanged for both GSR and RS models.

Evolution III

January 1995 saw the arrival of the Evolution 3- and this time the 5000 strong production run was bought up more quickly than the Evolution 2. The Evolution 3 looked more serious, with its new nose moulding (to channel air better to the radiator, intercooler, and brakes). New side skirts and rear corners, while the rear wing had grown again to reduce lift. Under the vented aluminium bonnet a new TDO5-16G6-7 Turbo, new exhaust system and increased compression brought another 10ps power rise, Torque output was unaltered, apart from a higher final drive ratio. Both GSR and RS still used the same 5 speed gearbox. Interior tweaks were limited to a new Momo steering wheel (GSR only) and new fabric on the Evolution 2 type Recaros. The specs on this vehicle were an engine 4G63T size of 1997 cc, 270 bhp at 6250 rpm, Torque was 228 lb ft at 3000 rpm. weight is 1260 kg (RS 1190 kg) A top speed of 149 mph and 0-60 in 4.9secs.

Evolution IV

The Lancer platform was completely changed in 1996, and along with it the Evolution, which had become extremely popular throughout the world. The engine and transaxle was rotated 180° to better balance the weight and eliminate torque steer. There were 2 versions available, The RS and GSR. The RS version was produced as a competition car with a limited-slip front differential and a friction type LSD at the rear. It also came with GLX seats and 16" steel wheels as these were items that would be replaced by anyone entering the car into competition events. The RS also had wind up windows, no air conditioning-just heater, and a few extra brace bars to strengthen the chassis, one behind the front grill and the other across the boot floor. The RS also had a factory option of thinner body panels and thinner glass. The GSR and the RS shared a new twin scroll turbocharger which helped to increase power to 280 PS (276 hp/206 kW) at 6500 rpm and 260 ft·lbf (352 Nm) of torque at 3000 rpm. Mitsubishi's new Active yaw control appeared as a factory option on the GSR model, which used steering, throttle input sensors and G sensors to computer-hydraulically controlled torque split individually to the rear wheels and as a result the 10,000 Evolution IVs produced all sold quickly. The Evolution IV can be distinguished by its two large foglights on the front bumper, and the newly designed tail lights on the rear, which became a standard design to Evolution VI, which would become yet another trademark of the Evolution series. This new generation was slightly heavier than previous Evos - the GSR in particular due to the added technology systems- but to counter this the car produced even more power - the Weight of the RS being 1260 kg and the GSR being 1345 kg.

Evolution V

In 1997, the WRC created a new "World Rally Car" class, and while these cars still had to abide by Group A standards, they did not have to meet homologation rules. Mitsubishi redesigned the Evolution IV with this in mind and introduced the Evolution V in January of 1998.
Many aspects of the car were changed such as: The interior was upgraded in the GSR version with a better class of Recaro seat. The body kit had flared arches at the front and rear and a new aluminium rear spoiler replaced the IV FRP version and gave an adjustable angle of attack to alter rear down force. The track was widened by 10 mm, the wheel offset changed from ET45 to ET38 along with the wheel diameter which rose from 16" to 17" to accommodate Brembo brakes which were added to enhance braking. In addition the brake master cylinder bore increased by 0.3 mm. The engine was strengthened in a few areas and the cam duration was increased. The pistons were lighter with a smaller skirt area. 510 cc injectors were replaced with 560 cc injectors for better engine reliability due to more electrical "headroom" and the ecu was changed to include a flash ROM.
Further more, the turbocharger was again improved. Torque was increased to 275 ft·lbf (373 N·m) at 3000 rpm. Power officially stayed the same, at 280 PS (276 hp/206 kW) as agreed by Japan's automotive gentlemen's agreement that all cars would have 276 or less hp, but some claim horsepower was actually somewhat higher.

Evolution VI

The Evolution VI's changes mainly focused on cooling and engine durability. It received a larger intercooler, larger oil cooler, and new pistons, along with a titanium-aluminide turbine wheel for the RS model, which was a first in a production car. Also, the Evolution VI received new bodywork yet again, with the most easily spotted change in the front bumper where the huge foglights were reduced in size and moved to the corners for better airflow. A new model was added to the GSR and RS lineup; known as the RS2, it was an RS with a few of the GSR's options. Another limited-edition RS was known as the RS Sprint, an RS tuned by Ralliart in the UK to be lighter and more powerful with 330 hp.
Yet another special edition Evolution VI was also released in 1999: the Tommi Makinen edition, named after Finnish rally driver Tommi Makinen that had won Mitsubishi four WRC drivers championships. It featured a different front bumper, Red/Black Recaro seats (with embossed T. Makinen logo), 17" ENKEI white wheels, a leather MOMO steering wheel and shift knob, a titanium turbine that spooled up quicker, front upper strut brace, lowered with tarmac stages in mind, a quicker lock to lock and amongst other colours, came in an exclusive shade of red with special decals, replicating Tommi Makinen's rally car's colour scheme. This car is also sometimes referred to as an Evolution 6½ or Evolution 6.5.
This was the last Lancer Evolution Homologation Special.

Evolution VII

In 2001, Mitsubishi were forced by the FIA to race in the WRC using WRC rules for building a car instead of the Group A class rules, and thus did not need to follow homologation rules. The Evolution VII was based on the larger Lancer Cedia platform and as a result gained more weight over the Evolution VI, but made up for this with multiple important chassis tweaks. The biggest change was the addition of an active center differential and a more effective limited-slip differential, while a front helical limited-slip differential was added. Torque was increased again to 284 ft·lbf (385 N·m) with engine tweaks that allowed greater airflow, and horsepower officially remained at 280 PS (276 hp/206 kW). Despite its civilian appearance, the Evolution VII can outrun many more expensive cars (such as the Ferrari 360 Modena, as seen in Best Motoring videos.)
The introduction of the Evolution VII also marked the first time an automatic drivetrain was included within the model line up - the GT-a. Having many design features later used in the Evolution VIII, the GT-a can be considered to be an Evolution 7.5. Seen as the 'gentleman's express' version of the visually similar VII GSR, the GT-a model had the following distinguishing interior and exterior specification ; GT-a only diamond cut finish 17 inch alloy wheels, clear rear light lenses and all in one style front headlights (later used on the Evolution VIII). The GT-a had the option of either no spoiler, the short spoiler (as later used on the Evolution VIII 260) or the thunderspoiler as used on the standard Evolution VII models. The most distinquishing feature was a smooth bonnet with no air-grills on it at all. Although offering inferior cooling capabilities, the bonnet was designed to give a cleaner line through the air with less air resistance at motorway speeds.
Interior could be specified with factory options of a deluxe velour interior, full leather or the Recaro sports seats. The GT-a interior was different in that it had chrome door handles, a different instrument panel (to show the gear selection) and chrome edges bezels around the speedo and rec counter. The GT-a also had additional sound deadening installed from the factory and the engine manifold and downpipe had been engineered to be quieter.
The 5-speed automatic gearbox had what Mitsubishi called 'fuzzy logic', which meant that the car would learn the driver's driving characteristics were like and would adapt the gear change timings and kick down reactions accordingly. The gears could be manually selected as with most tiptronics via steering wheel + and - buttons (a pair both sides) or via selecting the tiptronic gate with the gear lever. Power was down a little from the standard manual cars with a very usable 272 bhp. The GT-a gearbox did not appear again in the Evolution VIII but has been installed in the estate version of the Evolution IX Wagon.

Evolution VIII

The Evolution was changed again in 2003, this time sporting Super Active Yaw Control to handle traction and a 6-speed manual gearbox. It was available with 280 PS (276 hp/206 kW) in three trims: standard (GSR in Japan), RS (devoid of all excess components, such as interior map lights, power windows/doors, and radio) and MR. RS Editions came with a revised limited-slip front differential.
The Lancer Evolution VIII MR uses slick-response Bilstein shocks for improved handling. The aluminium roof panel and other reductions in body weight have lowered the centre of gravity to realize more natural roll characteristics. Detail improvements have also been made to Mitsubishi’s own electronic all-wheel drive, to the ACD 5 + Super AYC 6 traction control and to the Sports ABS systems. The Lancer Evolution VIII displayed at the 2003 Tokyo Motor Show took the MR designation traditionally reserved for Mitsubishi Motors high-performance models and used first on the Galant GTO. Other parts on the MR include BBS alloy wheels, Bilstein shocks, and an aluminium roof. In the United Kingdom, many special Evolutions were introduced, which included FQ300, FQ320, FQ340, and FQ400 variants. They each came with 305, 320, 340, and 400 hp (227, 239, 254 and 298 kW), respectively. It is rumored that the 'FQ' stands for 'Fucking Quick'.[1][2]
The FQ400, sold through Ralliart UK, produces 302.13 kW (405.2 hp), from its 2.0 L 4G63 engine as the result of being specially modified by United Kingdom tuning firms Rampage, Owen Developments and Flow Race Engines. At 202.9 hp (151.3 kW) per litre, it has one of the highest specific output per litre of any roadcar engine. With a curb weight of around 3200 lb (1451 kg), it achieves a 0-60 in 3.5 seconds and a 0-100 in around 9 seconds, while costing about £47,000. BBC's television series Top Gear demonstrated that the FQ-400 could surprisingly keep up with and eventually overtake a Lamborghini Murcielago around a test track. The Stig recorded a Top Gear Power Lap Times of 1 minute 24.8 seconds.[3] In a similar test conducted by UK supercar magazine evo, the Evolution was able to lap the Bedford Autodrome faster than an Audi RS4 and a Porsche Carrera 4S.[citation needed]
The Lancer Evolution VIII was also the first Evolution to be sold in the United States, spurred by the success of the Subaru Impreza WRX which had been released there just three years prior.[citation needed] The Evolution VIII found its true competition in the Subaru Impreza WRX STI model the same year as the Evolution VIII's US introduction. However, the internal components for the American versions were largely stripped-down versions of the specifications for the Japanese Lancer Evolution VIII. No US-spec Evolution model has active yaw control, including the 2006 Evolution IX. The American 2003 and 2004 GSRs are without the helical limited-slip front differential and 6-speed manual transmission. The 2004 US spec RS models, however, do have a front helical limited-slip differential. All 2003, 2004 and 2005 RS and GSR models have the Japanese Evolution VII's 5-speed transmission. The MR edition was introduced to the US in 2005, with ACD and the only model with a 6-speed transmission. The 2005 US spec RS and GSR have the ACD standard, and the front helical limited-slip differential is now standard on all models. The timing and tuning are also slightly lower than its Japanese counterpart, allowing it to adhere to the strict emissions regulations of the United States.
Most Evolution VIIIs have a carbon fiber rear spoiler with matching body-color endplates. All Evos have lightweight aluminum front fenders and hood. MR and RS editions have an aluminum roof. Additionally, MR Editions come equipped with 6-speed transmission, and BBS wheels. The basic RS Edition does not come with power windows or locks, or a radio. It DOES however, despite preproduction info, come standard with A/C in all USDM models.

Evolution IX

Mitsubishi introduced the Lancer Evolution IX in Japan on March 3, 2005,[4] and exhibited the car at the Geneva Motor Show for the European market the same day.[5] The North American markets saw the model exhibited at the New York International Auto Show the following month.[6] The 2.0 L 4G63 engine now gets MIVEC technology (variable valve timing), boosting official power output to 286 hp (213 kW) and torque to 289 ft·lbf (392 N·m). The Evolution VIII first offered in 2003 would produce dynamometer readings of approximately 225 WHP and 225 ft·lbf. WTQ with a flywheel power rating of 271/273 respectively. The Evolution IX typically pulls 255 WHP and 250 WTQ on a dynamometer, a difference of 30 horsepower.
The USDM Lancer Evolution IX models (RS, SE, MR) vary in their performance capabilities. Subtleties unique to each model account for variations in acceleration, handling and top speed. The RS excludes options standard on the IX & MR (power windows and locks, rear wiper, rear spoilers, trunk interior and trunk insulation). These weight savings of over 60 lb give the RS a subtly sharper handling responsiveness that helps it shave fractions of a second off the lap times of the IX on an identical course.[citation needed] However, the top-end MR does not lose significant performance, as the MR's 6th forward gear allows it to reach 165 mph at 7,000 rpm compared to 157 mph at 7,000 rpm in 5th for the RS and middle-positioned IX models.[citation needed] (Note: Data relevant to U.S. model specifications)
The IX MR retains the features of the Evolution VIII MR like Bilstein shocks, a 6-speed manual transmission, a rooftop vortex generator, BBS forged wheels, HID xenon headlights, foglights, accessory gauge package, "zero lift" kit, special badging and an aluminum roof. All models still sport Recaro bucket seats, Brembo brakes and MOMO steering wheels. Additional revisions from 2005 include a closer gear ratio for the 5-speed transmission, new lighter Enkei wheels on non-MR models, a redesigned front end with a more efficient air dam (the most noticeable feature are the two small oval ducts to cool the intercooler pipes), and a new rear bumper with a diffuser undersurface to smooth out the airflow coming out of the car for non-US models. In an effort to reduce the price increase on the Evolution IX model,[citation needed] HID headlights are no longer standard on the base IX (nor on the 2005 VIII neither), and are available only in the SSL package (Sun, Sound, and Leather), SE (Special Edition) and MR trims.
Three trims are available for Japan, Asia and Europe. Although all models use the same 286 hp (213 kW) engine, the torque differs from one model to another. The GSR produces 295 ft·lbf (400 N·m) of torque while the RS and GT produce 300 ft·lbf (407 N·m).
RS - revised 5-speed, aluminium roof, gauge pack, minimal interior, LSD and a titanium-magnesium turbine, left-hand drive option available
GT - revised 5-speed, this is basically the RS mechanically, but with some of the GSR's features (mainly interior pieces).
GSR - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, aluminium roof, gauge pack, SAYC (Super Active Yaw Control), and double-din radio (this is roughly equivalent to the USDM MR)
In the United Kingdom, the Evolution IX uses a different model scheme based on the cars horsepower. There were initially three models available: the FQ-300, FQ-320 and FQ-340 each with around 300, 320 and 340 bhp respectively. An FQ-360 model has subsequently been released as a successor to the Evolution VIII FQ-400. While the new FQ-360 produces less horsepower than its predecessor, it has more torque at 363lb ft at 3200 rpm - 8lb ft more than the FQ-400. All four models are designed to run on super unleaded petrol only.
FQ-300, 320, 340 - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, AYC (Active Yaw Control), super unleaded petrol only
FQ-360 - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, AYC (Active Yaw Control), Ralliart Sports Meter Kit, carbon front splitter, Speedline alloy wheels, super unleaded petrol only
All four models are available in the US. All models use the same 286 hp (213 kW) engine. All models use a front and rear Limited Slip Differential, and an Active Center Differential.
Standard - revised 5-speed, standard model
RS - revised 5-speed, aluminum roof, gauge pack, minimal interior
SE - Special Edition, aluminum roof/hood, split seven-spoke forged aluminum BBS wheels in "diamond black" finish, HID headlights with integrated fog lights, red-stitched Recaro seats
MR - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, split seven-spoke forged aluminum BBS wheels, aluminum roof, gauge pack, HID headlights with integrated fog lights, vortex generator, and custom MR badging.
To the standard (or "GSR") model, the Sun, Sound and Leather package adds a power sunroof, HID xenon headlamps with integrated fog lights, slightly upgraded speakers, a powered, trunk-mounted Infinity subwoofer, black leather seating surfaces, slightly revised center armrests front and rear, and separate rear headrests. This model deletes the GSR's headliner-mounted sunglass holder to make room for the sunroof.
A 2,500-piece, limited edition Evolution IX station wagon will be released in Japan soon after the sedan's debut. It uses the back end of the Lancer Sportback wagon grafted onto the sedan. Two trim models will be introduced: the GT with a six-speed manual transmission and the GT-A with a 5-speed automatic. Other than the station wagon rear end, redesigned seats and some chromed trims, the car's interior is the same as the sedan.
Mitsubishi also developed the Evolution MIEV, based on the Evolutions IX's chassis but with four electric motors connected to the wheels as a test bed for the Mitsubishi In-wheel Electric Vehicle (MIEV) next-generation electric vehicle. The in-wheel engines use a hollow doughnut construction to locate the rotor outside the stator, unlike other electric motors where the rotor turns inside the stator. The result of this is a lighter engine which translates into lower unsprung weight in a system where the engines are mounted in the wheels. Each in-wheel engine produces a power output of 68 hp, thus giving a combined output of 272 hp, comparable to that of regular, gas powered Lancer Evolutions. The car subsequently competed in the Shikoku EV (Electric Vehicle) Rally 2005.

Evolution X

Mitsubishi introduced a concept version of the next-gen Evolution at the 39th Tokyo Motor Show named the Mitsubishi Concept-X.[8]
It is said to be put into production by mid 2007.[citation needed] The Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X will feature a completely redesigned chassis and computer system. It will have a brand-new engine, the 4B11T; a 2.0L turbocharged direct injection aluminum I-4, and a new all-wheel-drive system that will control braking, throttle input, and real-time suspension adjustment (all together called S-AWC, or Super All Wheel control) simultaneously with the Active Center Differential. The S-AWC uses torque vectoring to send different amount of torque to any wheel at any given time. It will also feature an automatic six speed double-clutch transmission with steering-mounted magnesium alloy shift paddles.[9]
Mitsubishi debuted the Prototype-X concept at the 2007 North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in Detroit, Michigan, USA.[10] There is speculation among the press that the concept is in fact a lightly disguised Lancer Evolution X, and the production model will have minimal differences at most.[11] The Prototype-X also comes with Active Yaw Control (AYC) rear differential, and Active Skid Control (ASC).[12]
The production version of Prototype-X is expected to begin production in November 2007. It is also the first time a Lancer Evolution will ever be sold in Canada.[13]

1 comment:

The Car Geek said...

I have noticed that most of the Mitsubishi cars that have evolved has the Bilstein shocks to improve proper handling of the vehicle... I wonder if this was the secret of the Evolution VIII and Evolution IX or the reason why it was the most era wherein this cars was on the top list of most carbuyers...